Bibliography of the Ilhas Selvagens (Savage Islands), Northeast Atlantic Ocean
"A specially protected area, surrounding Ilhas Selvagens extends from the shore to the 200m depth contour. Navigation in this area is prohibited for big ocean going ships. Permission to land, which must be obtained by the Portuguese Embassy in Madeira, is rarely granted.
"The Southern group consists of two islands, Ilha Selvagem Pequena (Small Savage Island) and Ilheu de Fora together with several rocky islets and reefs.
"Ilha Selvagem Pequena is uninhabited but during the months of July and August it is visited by fishermen from the Canary Islands. It has a low rocky coast faced in many parts by steep beaches of pebbles. The island is for the most part otherwise sandy, undulating and slightly covered with vegetation. The average elevation of the island is between 11m and 14m, but at the North end lies Pico do Veado, 49m (161ft) high, abrupt and conical."
The people and history of Madeira and Macaronesia
Actas: III Coloquio Internacional de Historia da Madeira. Funchal, Madeira: Centro de Estudos de Historia do Atlantico, 1993. 931p.
de Azevedo, Alvaro Rodrigues. As saudades da terra: Historia das ilhas do Porto-Sancto, Madeira, Desertas e Selvagens. Funchal: Typ. Funchalense, 1873.
Brown, A. Samler. Madeira and the Canary Islands, with the Azores. London: Marston, 1901.
Bryans, Robin. Madeira, pearl of the Atlantic. London: Robert Hale, 1959.
Duncan, T. Bentley. Atlantic Islands, Madeira, the Azores and the Cape Verdes in the seventeenth century: commerce and navigation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1972.
Guill, James H. The early history of Madeira, 1418-1518. Berkeley, University of California, 1951. 188p.
Gregory, Desmond. The beneficent usurpers: a history of the British in Madeira. Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1988. 160p.
Ludtke, Jean. Atlantic peeks: ethnographic guide to the Portuguese-speaking Atlantic Islands. Hanover, Mass.: Christopher Pub., 1989.
Ludtke, Jean. "Madeirans." Encyclopedia of world cultures: volume 4, Europe. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1992. 164-166.
Rogers, Francis M. Atlantic islanders of the Azores and Madeiras. North Quincy, Mass.: Christopher Pub., 1979.
Serstevens, Albert. Le periple des iles Atlantides: Madere, Acores, Canaries. Paris: Arthaud, 1966.
Underwood, John. Landscapes of Madeira: a countryside guide. London: Sunflower, 1983. 112p.
Travel guides to Madeira
Bolt, Rodney. Madeira & Porto Santo. Cadogan Books, 1999. 288p.
Hancock, Matthew. The rough guide to Madeira. New York: Penguin Group, 2001.
"Lying some 600km off the coast of Morocco, Madeira is an extraordinarily dramatic island of wild mountain scenery and fantastic walking terrain. Combining precipitous valleys and sheer cliffs - including the second-highest sea cliffs in the world at Cabo Girao - the island boasts an astonishingly diverse array of colourful semitropical vegetation and gently cultivated terraces. Understandably, Madeira's natural beauty, along with its year-round mild climate, excellent hotel facilities, gardens and extremely low levels of crime, has long attracted older visitors, and consequently the island has had a reputation as a rather fusty destination for OAPs. However, it is now also attracting a much younger crowd, who are being wooed by the excellent levada walks and the growing number of watersports facilities and adventure sports on offer."
"Madeira and the neighbouring island of Porto Santo were uninhabited until they were discovered and colonized by Portuguese explorers in the fifteenth century. Bang in the middle of a major navigational route in the Atlantic, Madeira quickly established itself as an important trading post, linking Portugal with its colonies in Africa and the Americas. However, its economy only really took off as trade in the island's famous Madeira wine expanded in the seventeenth century. This trade was largely controlled by the British, Portugal's traditional commercial ally, leading to a strong British influence on the island's elite. There are still many Anglo-Madeiran families on the island today, while top hotels like Reid's maintain British customs, such as English teas. However, despite English being spoken just about everywhere, Madeira is very much a Portuguese island: the population is nearly all of mainland Portuguese descent, the signs, food and culture are Portuguese, and so are the superb pastries, powerful coffees and very drinkable table wines."
"As a holiday destination Madeira is relatively cheap, though, as most products have to be imported, it is more expensive than mainland Portugal. Until fairly recently, the island was one of the poorest parts of Portugal and consequently of Europe, and there are rural communities that have only recently been connected to road transport and mains electricity. Rural traditions are still important and the islanders remain conservative in their values. However, they have embraced the European Union with open arms, largely thanks to its funding of a new network of roads and building projects, which have helped propel most of the island into the twenty-first century. Though ancient farming methods on hilltop terraces continue, EU subsidies are updating agriculture and firmly making tourism the number-one source of income for the islanders, especially now the airport has been extended to allow jumbo jets to land."
"However, despite the rash of new development to cater for an expected increase in the number of tourists, equal efforts are being made to preserve Madeira's natural heritage: the island boasts the greatest concentration of virgin lauraceous forests in the world, and an astonishing 66 percent of the island enjoys protected national-park status."
Hofer, Hans. Insight Guides Madeira. New York: Prentice Hall Travel, 1998. 319p.
Schlecht, Neil. Berlitz Madeira. Berlitz Travel Guides, 2001. 144p.
Archaeology and prehistoric settlement of the Ilhas Selvagens
Hansen, Jorg W. "Mauerwerk auf Selvagem Grande (Portugal): Beschreibung und bauliche Wurdigung." Almogaren 31 (2000): 207-221.
Hansen, Jorg W. "Siedlungsspuren auf den Ilhas Selvagens (Portugal)." Almogaren 32-33 (2001-2002): 287-302.
Steiner, Hartwig-E. "Spekulationen und Thesen zur 'zeitweisen Besiedlung' der Atlantikinsel Selvagem Grande." Almogaren 31 (2000): 223-236.
Steiner, Hartwig-E. "Siedlungsspuren auf den Ilhas Selvagens. Dokumentation archaologischer Fundstatten auf Selvagem Grande. Expedition mit dem Forschungsschiff 'Corvette' vom 21.-28. Mai 1999." Almogaren 31 (2000): 193-206.
Ulbrich, Hans-Joachim. "Die Ilhas Selvagens (Portugal) im Spiegel der Geschichte." Almogaren 31 (2000): 143-191.
Ulbrich, Hans-Joachim. "Bibliographie der Ilhas Selvagens (Portugal)." Almogaren 31 (2000): 237-262.
Natural history of the Ilhas Selvagens
Assing, V. "A new species of Oligota Mannerheim from the Ilhas Selvagens (Coleoptera, Staphylindae)." Reichenbachia 33 (2000): 317-319.
Audiffred, P. A. J. Marine algae of Selvagem grande (Salvage Islands, Macaronesia). Funchal, Madeira: Museu Municipal do Funchal, 1983. 31p.
Bannerman, D. A. Birds of the Atlantic Islands: volume 1, a history of the birds of the Canary Islands and of the Salvages. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd, 1963.
Bischoff, Wolfgang. Die Reptilien der Kanarischen Inseln, der Selvagens-Inseln und des Madeira-Archipels. Wiesbaden: Aula-Verlag, 1998. 448p.
Contribucion al estudio de la historia natural de las Islas Salvajes: resultados de la expedicion cientifica "Agamenon 76" (23 de febrero-3 de marzo de 1976). Santa Cruz de Tenerife: Aula de Cultura de Tenerife, 1978. 209p.
Denis, J. "Spiders from the Madeira and Salvage Islands." Boletim do Museu Municipal do Funchal 17 (1963): 29-48.
Gjaerum, Halvor B. Two rust species from the Salvage Islands. Funchal, Madeira: Museu Municipal do Funchal, 1975. 3p.
den Hartog, J. C. "Bird observations in the Selvagens Islands." Boletim do Museu Municipal do Funchal 36 (1980): 111-141.
den Hartog, J. C. "De Salvagens eilanden, een Portugeesch naturreservat in de Atlantische Oceaan." Artis 27 (1981): 82-90.
von Helversen, O. "Scientific expedition to the Salvage Islands. Einige Pseudoskorpione von den Ilhas Selvagens." Boletim do Museu Municipal do Funchal 19 (1963) : 95-103.
Hansen, A. "Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants 4." Sommerfeltia (Oslo) 17 (1993): 1-295.
Honnorez, Jose. Contribution a l'etude geologique et petrographique de l'archipel des Selvagens. Brussels: Academie royale des sciences d'outre-mer, 1966. 44p.
Kammer, Franco. Beitrage zu einer kritischen Interpretation der rezenten und fossilen Gefasspflanzenflora und Wirbeltierfauna der Azoren, des Madeira-Archipels, der Ilhas Selvagens, der Kanarischen Inseln und der Kapverdischen Inseln : mit einem Ausblick auf Probleme des Artenschwundes in Makaronesien. Freiburg im Breisgau : F. Kammer, 1982. 179p.
Lopes, M. T. "Littoral sponges from Selvagens Islands." Symposium on fauna and flora of the Atlantic Islands, 1993. Funchal, Madeira: Camara Municipal do Funchal, 1995. 387-391.
Lowe, Richard T. Floruae salvagiae tentamen: a list of plants collected in the Salvage Islands by Sr Constantino Cabral de Noronha. London: J. Van Voorst, 1869. 24p.
Malaquias, M. A. E. "Additions to the knowledge of the opisthobranch molluses of the Selvagens Islands, NE Atlantic, Portugal." Symposium on fauna and flora of the Atlantic Islands, 1998. University of the Azores, 2000. 89-98.
Monod, Theodore. Conspectus florae Salvagicae. Funchal, Madeira: Camara Municipal do Funchal, 1990. 79p.
Neves, H. C. "Analysis of the vegetation of the Ilheu de Fora, Selvagens Islands." Symposium on fauna and flora of the Atlantic Islands, 1993. Funchal, Madeira: Camara Municipal do Funchal, 1995. 505-510.
Parente M. I., et al. "Flora marina de las Ilhas Selvagens: resultados preliminares de la expedicion Macaronesia 2000." Revista de la Academia Canaria de la Ciencia 2001.
Perez de Paz, Pedro Luis. Contribucion al estudio de la flora y vegetacion de las Islas Salvajes. Tenerife, Canary Islands: 1977. 46p.
Press, J. R. Flora of Madeira. London: HMSO, 1994. 574p.
Press, J. R., M. Biscoito, et al. "New plant records from the Salvage Islands (Portugal)." Bocagiana 90 (1986): 1-4.
Quartau, Jose Alberto. "On a new species of the genus Brachypterona Lindberg (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) from the Salvage Islands." Arquivos do Museu Bocage 10 (1981): 125-132.
Read, Helen J. Notes on the vegetation of some Atlantic Islands based on observations made in 1884. Funchal, Madeira: Museu Municipal do Funchal, 1987. 7p.
Santos Guerra, Arnoldo. Evergreen forests in the Macaronesian region. Strasbourg: Council of Europe, 1990. 78p.
Selvagens Islands Nature Reserve, Portugal (no. 36). Strasbourg: Council of Europe, 1993. 18p.
Simon, E. "Arachnides recueillis par M. L. Garreta a l'ile Grande-Salvage." Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France 81 (1912): 59-61.
Weisscher, F. "Marine algae from Selvagem pequena (Salvage Islands)." Boletim do Museu Municipal do Funchal 35 (1983): 41-80.
Wollaston, Thomas V. Coleoptera atlantidum: an enumeration of the coleopterous insects of the Madeiras, Salvages, and Canaries. London: J. Van Voorst, 1865. 526p.
Wollaston, Thomas V. Insecta maderensia: an account of the insects of the islands of the Madeiran group. London: J. Van Voorst, 1854. 634p.
Zino, P. A. "The breeding of Cory's Shearwater (Calonectris diomedea) on the Salvage Islands." Ibis 113 (1971): 212-217.
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