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"Where no ship had ever before been, and situated as this Island is in the midst of a prodigious Ocean..."
Arthur Bowes Smyth, HMS Lady Penrhyn 1788 

The Mystery Islands of South Polynesia
Bibliography of Prehistoric Settlement on Norfolk Island, the Kermadecs, Lord Howe, and the Auckland Islands

2001 Don Macnaughtan

Island Bibliographies no. 1

blue pin Introduction
blue pin Prehistory of Norfolk Island
blue pin Prehistory of the Kermadecs
blue pin Prehistory of Lord Howe Island
blue pin Prehistory of the Sub-Antarctic Islands


norfolk

New Zealand and the remote oceanic islands of South Polynesia



Introduction


The spread of the Polynesians and Micronesians into the vastness of the Pacific Ocean is one of the great dramas of human history. Beginning over 3,000 years ago, people began to spill out of the island chains of Indonesia, Melanesia and the Philippines into the scattered atolls and volcanic islands of the Pacific Ocean. By about 1000AD, most of the habitable islands of the world's greatest ocean supported thriving populations. The speed and daring of this expansion was incredible. Humans had touched almost every speck in the Pacific, sailing on double-hulled canoes across trackless expanses in search of new homes. In every sense, this was one of the most extraordinary migrations in human history.

canoe


The last places to be reached were in the southwest Pacific, and in the far eastern Pacific. Settlers reached all the way to Easter Island, 2300 miles from the coast of South America, by about 700AD. In the southwest Pacific, voyaging canoes reached New Zealand around 1250AD, and the remote, cool and windy archipelago of the Chatham Islands around 1300AD (New Zealand was in fact the last major land mass on the planet to be settled by humans - Iceland was settled about 800AD, and Madagascar some hundreds of years earlier.) After New Zealand, the Pacific was full, and long-range voyaging began to decline quite rapidly.

A few habitable Pacific islands were never found until Europeans entered the ocean - they rank as amongst the last places on earth discovered by humans. These include the Galapagos Islands, the Revillagigedos Archipelago, and the Juan Fernandez Islands off the coast of South America; Lord Howe Island in the Tasman Sea between Australia and New Zealand; and Midway Island, northwest of Hawaii. They are some of the few places on the planet which have never had an "indigenous" population.

norfolk
Diffusion of human settlement across time and space in the Pacific


However, there are also some islands in the Pacific that were once settled by prehistoric people, then abandoned. These have been called the "mystery islands" by anthropologists, because there are often very few clues about what happened to their people. Some of the "mystery islands" include Necker and Nihoa Islands, northwest of Hawaii; Walpole, near New Caledonia; Pitcairn and Henderson in the eastern Pacific; Palmerston and Suwarrow in the Cook Islands; the Bonin Islands, 600 miles south of Japan; and several of the Phoenix and Line Islands in the central Pacific. Additionally, there are some famous "mystery islands" off the Australian coast, notably Kangaroo Island near Adelaide, and the islands of Bass Strait between Tasmania and Victoria. For further information on the Australian off-shore islands, see Offshore Islands & Maritime Explorations in Australian Prehistory by Sandra Bowdler.

migrations
Location of the Pacific's Mystery Islands (from Irwin)

Some of the "mystery islands" were quite habitable, and could have sustained some level of prehistoric population; but when discovered by Europeans, they were unpopulated. We do not definitively know why this was so. Perhaps it was climate or sea level change, environmental overload, collapse of the food supply, internal conflict, the psychological trauma of severe isolation, or most likely an unfortunate combination of all these factors. Something drove these people to extinction, or to take their chances once again on the vast Pacific. This is an enduring and fascinating puzzle for which there are no ready answers.

However, as we understand more about prehistoric pressures on island ecosystems, we are getting a clearer perspective. Polynesian populations tended to peak within several generations of island settlement, then declined as their environments deteriorated. In some island ecosystems (such as Easter Island) there is evidence of disastrous ecological collapse. Gardening and fishing were uncertain strategies. Protein supply was always a problem on smaller islands, and most larger land animals were quickly eaten to extinction. Trade networks broke down, and interisland travel declined. Without trade and emigration, populations became stranded, resources were exhausted, warfare and violence erupted, and the population fell catastophically. There is no clear evidence that this happened on the "mystery" islands, but it is clear that to sustain a population on a small island in profound isolation is extremely difficult.

This bibliography gathers together the available research on three of these "mystery" island groups - Norfolk Island, the Kermadec Islands, and the Auckland Islands. These islands are amongst the most remote on earth, but both were definitely settled at some point by prehistoric Polynesian seafarers. However, when "rediscovered" by Europeans in the late 18th century, they were utterly abandoned. The references below are primarily the work of archaeologists, who have teased out the fragmentary and tantalizing evidence for these vanished visitors.

norfolk
Dr. Jim Specht with a Norfolk Island blade




Norfolk Island
norfolk

Map of modern Norfolk Island



Norfolk Bibliography

blue pin Anderson, Atholl J.
"Taking to the Boats: The Prehistory of Indo-Pacific Colonization." Public Lecture for the National Institute of Asia and the Pacific. 18 Dec. 2002. Web.

blue pin Anderson, Atholl J., and Peter White. "Approaching the Prehistory of Norfolk Island." The Prehistoric Archaeology of Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific. Canberra: Australian National Museum, 2001. 1-10. Print.

blue pin Anderson, Atholl J., et al. "Archaeological Fieldwork on Norfolk Island." The Prehistoric Archaeology of Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific. Canberra: Australian National Museum, 2001. 11-32. Print.

norfolk


blue pin Anderson, Atholl J. "Differential Reliability of 14C AMS Ages of Rattus Exulans Bone Gelatin in South Pacific Prehistory." Journal of The Royal Society of New Zealand 30.3 (2000): 243-261. Print.

blue pin Anderson, Atholl J. "Discovery of a Prehistoric Habitation Site on Norfolk Island." Journal of the Polynesian Society 105 (1996): 479-486. Print.

blue pin Anderson, Atholl J., and Roger Green. "Domestic and Religious Structures in the Emily Bay Settlement Site, Norfolk Island." The Prehistoric Archaeology of Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific. Canberra: Australian National Museum, 2001. 43-52. Print.

blue pin Anderson, Atholl J. "Faunal Collapse, Landscape Change and Settlement History in Remote Oceania." World Archaeology 33.3 (2002): 375-390. Print.

blue pin Anderson, Atholl J., and Richard N. Holdaway. "14C Dates on Rattus Exulans Bones from Natural and Archaeological Contexts on Norfolk Island, South-West Pacific." Archaeology in New Zealand 41.3 (1998): 195-198. Print.

blue pin Anderson, Atholl J., and M. Spriggs. "Late Colonisation of East Polynesia." Antiquity 67 (1993): 200-217. Print.

blue pin Anderson, Atholl J., et al. "Material Sources of Basalt and Obsidian Artifacts from a Prehistoric Settlement Site on Norfolk Island, South Pacific." Archaeology in Oceania 32.1 (1997): 39-46. Print.

blue pin Anderson, Atholl J. "No Meat on That Beautiful Shore: The Prehistoric Abandonment of Subtropical Polynesian Islands." International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 11 (2000): 14-23.

"In the Pacific there are two main groups of so-called mystery islands, i.e. islands that were settled and then abandoned (or their populations died out) in prehistory. One consists of low coral islands in the equatorial zone and the other of high basaltic islands in the subtropical zone. Consideration of environmental and archaeological evidence about the latter suggests that they lay in a relatively impoverished zone of faunal resources (marine mammals, seabirds, inshore fish and invertebrates) and were also marginal to the full deployment of tropical agriculture. It is argued that vulnerability to significant faunal depletion by over-exploitation, without the ability to compensate by agricultural production provides an explanation of settlement discontinuation in the subtropical islands and potentially for the mystery islands as a whole."

blue pin Anderson, Atholl J., and Peter White. "Prehistoric Settlement on Norfolk Island and its Oceanic Context." The Prehistoric Archaeology of Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific. Canberra: Australian National Museum, 2001. 135-141. Print.

blue pin Anderson, Atholl J., et al. "The Radiocarbon Chronology of the Norfolk Island Archaeological Sites." The Prehistoric Archaeology of Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific. Canberra: Australian National Museum, 2001. 33-42. Print.

blue pin Anderson, Atholl J. "Retrievable Time: Prehistoric Colonisation of South Polynesia From the Outside In and the Inside Out." Disputed Histories: Imagining New Zealand's Pasts. Ed. Tony Ballantyne and Brian Moloughney. Dunedin: Otago University Press, 2006. 25-41. Print.

blue pin Bulbeck, F. D., and C. P. Groves. "Skeletal Remains from Grave 608, Norfolk Island." The Prehistoric Archaeology of Norfolk Island. Honolulu: Bishop Museum, 1984. 57-74. Print.

blue pin Campbell, Colin R., and Lyn Schmidt. "Molluscs and Echinoderms from the Emily Bay Settlement Site, Norfolk Island." The Prehistoric Archaeology of Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific. Canberra: Australian National Museum, 2001. 109-114. Print.

blue pin Dayton, Leigh. "Now We Know Who Beat Cook to Norfolk." Sydney Morning Herald 2 April 1997: 4. Print.

"When Captain Cook dropped anchor at Norfolk Island in 1774, nobody was home. Yet when the island's penal colony was established in 1788, puzzled residents discovered stone tools on the beaches and cultivated bananas in the forest. Somebody had been there. But who? Sketchy archaeological evidence has long pointed to either Melanesian people from nearby New Caledonia, or to Polynesians from eastern Pacific islands. But which? At last, archaeologists have the answer. The first settlers arrived between 400 and 800 years ago from New Zealand, with a stop-over at the Kermadec Islands..."

blue pin Diamond, J. M. "Why Did the Polynesians Abandon Their Mystery Islands?" Nature 317 (1985): 764. Print.

blue pin Green, T. H. "Petrologic Evaluation of Artifact Material from Norfolk Island." The Prehistoric Archaeology of Norfolk Island. Honolulu: Bishop Museum, 1984. 53-56. Print.

norfolk


blue pin Groves, C. P. "The Human Femoral Specimen from the Sand Pit at Cemetery Bay." The Prehistoric Archaeology of Norfolk Island. Honolulu: Bishop Museum, 1984. 75-76. Print.

blue pin Hoare, Merval. "The Discovery of Norfolk Island." Australian External Territories 10.2 (1970): 8-11. Print.

blue pin Hoare, Merval. Norfolk Island: A Revised and Enlarged History, 1774-1998. Rockhampton, Qld: Central Queensland University Press, 1999. 228p. Print.

blue pin Holdaway, Richard N., and Atholl J. Anderson. "Avifauna from the Emily Bay Settlement Site, Norfolk Island: A Preliminary Account." The Prehistoric Archaeology of Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific. Canberra: Australian National Museum, 2001. 85-100. Print.

blue pin MacPhail, Mike K., et al. "Polynesian Plant Introductions in the Southwest Pacific: Initial Pollen Evidence from Norfolk Island." The Prehistoric Archaeology of Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific. Canberra: Australian National Museum, 2001. 123-134. Print.

blue pin Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth, et al. "Genetic Variation in Archaeological Rattus Exulans Remains from the Emily Bay Settlement Site, Norfolk Island." The Prehistoric Archaeology of Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific. Canberra: Australian National Museum, 2001. 81-84. Print.

blue pin McCarthy, F. D. "Norfolk Island: Additional Evidence of a Former Native Occupation." Journal of the Polynesian Society 43 (1934): 267-270. Print.

blue pin Menham, G. "Reappraising Norfolk Island History." Australian External Territories 10:4 (1970): 15-18. Print.

emily
Emily Bay - site of earliest Polynesian settlement

blue pin Neuweger, Diana, et al. "Land Snails from Norfolk Island Sites." The Prehistoric Archaeology of Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific. Canberra: Australian National Museum, 2001. 115-122. Print.

blue pin Nobbs, Raymond. Norfolk Island and Its First Settlement, 1788-1814. North Sydney, NSW: Library of Australian History, 1988. 244p. Print.

blue pin Ritchie, Neville. "Archaeology and History of Norfolk Island." Archaeology in New Zealand 32 (1989): 118-134. Print.

blue pin Sampson, Helen. Over the Horizon: The Polynesian Settlement on Norfolk Island. Kingston: Norfolk Island Museum, 2005. 14p. Print.

blue pin Schmidt, Lyn, et al. "Shell and Bone Artefacts from the Emily Bay Settlement Site, Norfolk Island." The Prehistoric Archaeology of Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific. Canberra: Australian National Museum, 2001. 67-74. Print.

norfolk


blue pin Smith, Ian, et al. "Mammalian and Reptilian Fauna from Emily and Cemetery Bays, Norfolk Island." The Prehistoric Archaeology of Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific. Canberra: Australian National Museum, 2001. 75-80. Print.

blue pin Specht, Jim, et al. "Additional Evidence for Pre-1788 Visits by Pacific Islanders to Norfolk Island, South-West Pacific." Records of the Australian Museum Supplement 17 (1993): 145-157. Print.

blue pin Specht, Jim, and L. Hosking. "The Early Mystery of Norfolk Island." Australian Natural History 19.7 (1978): 218-223. Print.

blue pin Specht, Jim, et al. "A Minimum Date for Polynesian Visitation to Norfolk Island, South-West Pacific, from Faunal Evidence." Search 16: 304-306. Print.

blue pin Specht, Jim, ed. The Prehistoric Archaeology of Norfolk Island. Honolulu: Bishop Museum, 1984. 76p.
Series: Pacific Anthropological Records no. 34.

blue pin Thorpe, W. W. "Evidence of Polynesian Culture in Australia and Norfolk Island." Journal of the Polynesian Society 38 (1929): 123-126. Print.

blue pin Turner, Marianne, et al. "Stone Artefacts from the Emily Bay Settlement Site, Norfolk Island." The Prehistoric Archaeology of Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific. Canberra: Australian National Museum, 2001. 53-66. Print.

blue pin Walter, Richard, and Atholl J. Anderson. "Fishbone from the Emily Bay Settlement Site, Norfolk Island." The Prehistoric Archaeology of Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific. Canberra: Australian National Museum, 2001. 101-108. Print.

blue pin Weisler, Marshall I. Prehistoric Long-Distance Interaction in Oceania: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Auckland: New Zealand Archaeological Association, 1997. 237p. Print. Series: New Zealand Archaeological Association Monograph no. 21.

blue pin Woodford, James. "Revealed: Ancient Residents of Norfolk." Sydney Morning Herald 9 Feb. 1999: 8. Print.

"More than 170 years before Captain James Cook arrived in the South Pacific a small community of Polynesians vanished from their Norfolk Island home - killed by disease, struck by disaster or murdered when they escaped to Australia. They had lived on the island for as long as 400 years, from 1200 to 1600, and while their fate will never be known, a team of archaeologists has for the first time uncovered evidence of their village and a minute glimpse into their daily life."


The Kermadec Islands


map
Map of Raoul Island


The Kermadec Archipelago lies about 600 mi. northeast of Auckland, halfway between New Zealand and Tonga. The land area is about the same as Norfolk, at 13 sq. miles, but the islands are less habitable. The largest island, Raoul, covers 11.2 sq. miles, and rises to 1700 feet at Mt. Moumoukai. There are smaller islands and islets in the archipelago, including Curtis, Macaulay, and L'Esperance. The islands are prone to volcanic activity and earthquakes, which may have been a factor in their early settlement history.

kermadec


Only Raoul is habitable - heavily wooded and fertile, with 57" of rain a year. Nikau palm, pohutukawa, and karaka forests flourish. There are small lakes and lagoons, and extensive tropical/temperate coastal marine ecosystems with corals but no coral reefs. In prehistoric times the environment could have supported a resident population, although the ecological integrity of the islands has deteriorated since European discovery. They are now heavily protected by the New Zealand government, and the environment is being gradually restored. Currently, the only inhabitants are scientists and weather station personnel.

kermadec



Kermadec Bibliography

blue pin Anderson, Atholl J. "The Archaeology of Raoul Island (Kermadecs) and its Place in the Settlement History of Polynesia." Archaeology and Physical Anthropology in Oceania 15 (1980): 131-141. Print.

kermadec


blue pin Anderson, Atholl J. "The Chronology of Colonization in New Zealand." Antiquity 65 (1991): 767-795. Print.

blue pin Anderson, Atholl J. "The 1978 Raoul Island Archaeological Expedition: An Interim Report." New Zealand Archaeological Association Newsletter 22 (1979): 76-82. Print.

kermadec


blue pin Anderson, Atholl J., and Bruce McFadgen. "Prehistoric Two-way Voyaging Between New Zealand and East Polynesia: Mayor Island Obsidian on Raoul Island and Possible Raoul Island Obsidian in New Zealand." Archaeology In Oceania 25 (1990): 37-42. Print.

blue pin Coppell, William G. Bibliographies of the Kermadec Islands, Niue, Swains Island and the Tokelau Islands. Honolulu: Pacific Islands Studies Program, University of Hawaii, 1975. 99p. Print.

blue pin Duff, Roger. "Stone Adzes from Raoul, Kermadec Islands." Journal of the Polynesian Society 77 (1968): 386-401. Print.

blue pin Edgar, A. T., et al. "Kermadecs Expedition, 17-25 November." Notornis 12 (1965): 3-43. Print.

blue pin Gentry, Steven. Raoul & the Kermadecs: New Zealand's Northernmost Islands. Wellington: Steele Roberts Aotearoa, 2013. Print.

blue pin Higharn, T., and L. Johnson. "The Prehistoric Chronology of Raoul Island, the Kermadec Islands." Group Archaeology in Oceania 31 (1996): 207-213. Print.

blue pin Irwin, Geoffrey. "Against, Across and Down the Wind: A Case for the Systematic Exploration of the Remote Pacific Islands." Journal of the Polynesian Society 98 (1989): 167-206. Print.

kermadec


blue pin Irwin, Geoffrey. "The Kermadec, Norfolk, Chatham and Line Islands." The Prehistoric Exploration and Colonisation of the Pacific. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992. 111-116. Print.

blue pin Johnson, Leigh. A History and Archaeological Survey of Raoul Island, Kermadec Islands. Auckland: Dept. of Conversation, Auckland Conservancy, 1991. Print. Series: Auckland Conservancy Technical Reports no. 2.

blue pin Johnson, Leigh. In the Midst of a Prodigious Ocean: Archaeological Investigations of Polynesian Settlement of the Kermadec Islands. Auckland: Dept. of Conversation, Auckland Conservancy, 1995. 130p. Print. Series: Auckland Conservancy Historic Resources no. 11.

blue pin Johnson, Leigh, and Thomas Higham. "The Prehistoric Chronology of Raoul Island, the Kermadec Group." Archaeology in Oceania 32 (1996): 207-213. Print.

blue pin Kirch, Pat. "On the Genetic and Cultural Relationships of Certain Polynesian Outlier Populations." American Journal of Physical Anthropology 66.4 (1985): 381-382. Print.

kermadec


blue pin Kirch, Pat. "The Polynesian Outliers: Continuity, Change, and Replacement." Out of Asia: Peopling the Americas and the Pacific. Ed. R. Kirk and E. Szathmary. Canberra: Journal of Pacific History, 1984. 206-221. Print.

blue pin Kirch, Pat. "Polynesia's Mystery Islands." Archaeology May-June 1988: 26-31. Print.

kermadec


blue pin Kirch, Pat, and J. Ellison. "Palaeoenvironmental Evidence for Human Colonisation of Remote Oceanic Islands." Antiquity 68 (1994): 310-321. Print.

blue pin Leach, Foss, et al. "The Origin of Prehistoric Obsidian Artefacts from the Chatham and Kermadec Islands." New Zealand Journal of Archaeology 8 (1986): 143-170. Print.

blue pin Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth, et al. "Ancient DNA from Polynesian Rats: Extraction, Amplification and Sequence from Single Small Bones." Electrophoresis 18.9 (1997): 1534-1537. Print.

blue pin Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth, et al. "Patterns of Prehistoric Human Mobility in Polynesia Indicated by mtDNA from the Pacific Rat." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 95 (1998): 15145-15150. Print.

blue pin Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth, et al. "Prehistoric Mobility in Polynesia: mtDNA Variation in Rattus Exulans from the Chatham and Kermadec Islands." Asian Perspectives 38.2 (1999): 186. Print.

blue pin Oliver, Reginald B. Vegetation of the Kermadec Islands. Wellington: Govt. Printing Office, 1910. 175p. Print.

kermadec


blue pin Roberts, M. "Origin, Dispersal Routes and Geographic Distribution of Rattus Exulans, with Special Reference to New Zealand." Pacific Science 45 (1991): 123-130. Print.

blue pin Sutton, Douglas G., ed. The Origins of the First New Zealanders. Auckland: Auckland University Press, 1994. 269p. Print.

blue pin Sutton, Douglas G. "A Paradigmatic Shift in Polynesian Prehistory: Implications for New Zealand." New Zealand Journal of Archaeology 9 (1987): 135-155. Print.

blue pin Wright, A. E., ed. The Offshore Islands of Northern New Zealand: Proceedings of a Symposium Convened by the Offshore Islands Research Group in Auckland, 10-13 May, 1983. Wellington: Department of Lands and Survey, 1986. Print.



Lord Howe Island


Lord Howe Island lies in the Tasman Sea, 440 miles northeast of Sydney, Australia. The island is about 7 sq. miles, and has an excellent climate and a reef system. It was discovered in 1788 by a British ship. It appears that before that moment, no human had laid eyes on Lord Howe, so it remains one of the unique places on the planet that never had an indigenous population. Some archaeological work has been carried out to test the hypothesis that Lord Howe was truly undiscovered, and so far there has been no evidence of a prehistoric population. Even for the intrepid Polynesians, Lord Howe would have been an incredible voyaging achievement, and it appears unlikely that Australian aboriginals ever had the sailing technology to venture that far from the coast. However, an interesting hypothesis is that Lord Howe was struck by a mega-tsunami caused by collision with an extraterrestrial object. This cataclysm (in 1500AD) could have obliterated any settlement on the island.

howe




Lord Howe Bibliography

blue pin Abbott, Dallas H., et al. "Did a Bolide Impact Cause Catastrophic Tsunamis in Australia and New Zealand?" Geological Society of America 2003 Annual Meeting 2-5 Nov. 2003, Seattle, Washington. Web, Print.

blue pin Anderson, Atholl J. "Investigating Early Settlement on Lord Howe Island." Australian Archaeology 57 (2003): 98-102. Print.

"A survey of unconsolidated sediments overlying Pleistocene calcarenites and Tertiary basalts on Lord Howe Island was undertaken in 1996 in order to test the hypothesis that human settlement had not occurred before the European era, beginning in AD 1788. The results, largely from augering in lowland areas suitable for settlement, showed almost no sign of human occupation, and two radiocarbon dates on charcoal from sand-dune deposits are both modern."

blue pin Bryant, Edward. "Periodic Mega-Tsunami in the Southwest Pacific: Physical and Human Impacts." Conference on Environmental Catastrophes and Recoveries in the Holocene 29 Aug. - 2 Sept. 2002, Brunel University, Uxbridge, UK. Web.

blue pin Lord Howe Island - Wikipedia. Web.

blue pin Macphail, M. "Report: Latest Holocene Palynological Sites, Lord Howe Island." 1996. Unpublished research notes. Print.

blue pin McDougall, I., B.J.J. Embleton, and D.B. Stone. "Origin and Evolution of Lord Howe Island, Southwest Pacific Ocean" Journal of the Geological Society of Australia (1981): 155-176. Print.



Subantartic islands: The Auckland Islands, The Snares, Campbell, Bounty and the Antipodes Islands


The Auckland Islands are considerably different than Norfolk and the Kermadecs. They are a subantarctic archipelago, with a harsh, cold, windy climate, situated about 300 miles south of the South Island of New Zealand. Incredibly, evidence is emerging that prehistoric Polynesians voyaged to these islands on the edge of the Antarctic; a truly astounding feat of seamanship and endurance. Archaeologists are still uncovering the tenuous evidence for these most far-flung of the Polynesian discoverers, and as yet we know little about their settlement, which took place in the 13th and 14th centuries. There is one archaeological site at Sandy Bay on Enderby Island, a small island to the north of the main Auckland Island. Enderby has the best habitat of the archipelago, and is relatively sheltered from the prevailing winds. There is also easy access to nearby seal colonies.

Various archaeological relics had been collected from Sandy Bay over the years, but excavations in the late 1990s by Atholl Anderson finally proved that the site had been occupied 600-700 years ago. This is around the same period that Archaic Maori were settling in the South Island of New Zealand.

In the 19th century, during historic times, Polynesians once again settled in the Aucklands for about 20 years, this time arriving by European sailing ship. These were Taranaki Maoris from the Chatham Islands, accompanied by their Moriori slaves. This settlement was not successful, and the survivors were evacuated back to the South Island in the 1850s.

Rakiura is the Maori name for Stewart Island, which probably served as a launching point for voyaging to the Auckland archipelago. Maori settlement on Rakiura was extensive. The Snares are a small forested group of islets 64 miles south of Rakiura which show evidence of occasional visits. An archaic adze has been discovered there. One of the larger islands was known to the Maoris as Te Taniwha ("The Dragon").

Campbell Island and Bounty Island are even more remote sub-Antarctic Islands well south of New Zealand that have yet to reveal evidence of Polynesian settlement. There is tantalizing evidence of a Polynesian visit to the Antipodes Islands - a fragment of Polynesian pottery now in the Te Papa Museum in Wellington.

aucklands
Map of the Auckland Archipelago






Auckland Islands Bibliography

blue pin Anderson, Atholl J. "Subpolar Settlement in South Polynesia." Antiquity 79.306 (2005): 791-800. Print.

aucklands
Landscape of the Auckland Islands


blue pin Anderson, Atholl J., and Gerard R. O'Regan. "The Maori Archaeology of Southern Rakiura." Southern Margins Project Report. Dunedin: Ngai Tahu Development Report, 1999. Print.

blue pin Anderson, Atholl J., and Gerard R. O'Regan. "The Polynesian Archaeology of the Subantarctic Islands: An Initial Report on Enderby Island." Southern Margins Project Report. Dunedin: Ngai Tahu Development Report, 1999. Print.

blue pin Anderson, Atholl J. Prehistoric Archaeology in the Auckland Islands: New Zealand Subantarctic Region. Wellington: Dept. of Conservation, 2003. 28p. Print.

blue pin Anderson, Atholl J., and Gerard R. O'Regan. "To the Final Shore: Prehistoric Colonisation of the Subantarctic Islands in South Polynesia." Australian Archaeologist: Collected Papers in Honour of Jim Allen. Canberra: Australian National University, 2000. 440-454. Print.

blue pin Auckland Islands - Wikipedia. Web.

aucklands

Enderby Island

blue pin Coutts, P. J. F. "The Emergence of the Foveaux Strait Maori from Prehistory: A Study of Culture Contact." Diss. University of Otago, 1972. Print.

blue pin Dingwall, P. R. "Castaways of the Auckland Islands: The Changing Image of the Auckland Islands." Landscape 8 (1980), 9 (1981). Print.

blue pin Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth, et al. "The Origins of the Feral Pigs on the Auckland Islands." Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 33 (2003): 561-569. Print.

blue pin McNab, R. Murihiku and the Southern Islands: A History of the West Coast Sounds, Foveaux Strait, Stewart Island, The Snares, Bounty, Antipodes, Auckland, Campbell and Macquarie Islands from 1770 to 1829. Auckland: Wilson and Horton, 1970. Print.

aucklands
Enderby Island


blue pin O'Connor, Tom. "Polynesians in the Southern Ocean: Occupation of the Auckland Islands in Prehistory." New Zealand Geographic 69 (Sept.-Oct. 2004): 6-8. Print.

blue pin Pierce, G. L. "Nga-iwi-o-aotea." Te Ao Hou 59 (June 1967): 43. Print.

aucklands
The Auckland Islands - beautiful and desolate

blue pin Scadden, K. "The Auckland Islands, 1806-1900: Research in Progress." Archifacts 1 (1988): 2-15. Print.

blue pin"Snares Site 1 and Auckland Islands Site 53: NZAA Site Record Forms." Ms. Print.

blue pin Sutton, Douglas G. "Coastal Hunting in the Subantarctic Zone." New Zealand Journal of Archaeology 2 (1980): 135-155. Print.

blue pin Sutton, Douglas G. et al. "Towards the Recognition of Convergent Cultural Adaptation in the Subantarctic Zone." Current Anthropology 23.1 (Feb. 1982): 77-97. Print.

blue pin Wallace, R. "Auckland Islands: Charcoal Identifications and Dating Sample Selection." Southern Margins Project Report. Dunedin: Ngai Tahu Development Report, 1999. Print.

blue pin West, Carol. New Zealand Subantarctic Islands Research Strategy. NZ Dept. of Conservation, Southland Conservancy, 2005. 38p. Web, Print.

 


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