The Athapaskan Languages of Oregon
The Athapaskans in Oregon originally migrated into this area over two millennia ago from northern Canada and Siberia. They are a distinct group who probably arrived from Asia in a separate, later migration from most Native Americans. They are linguistic relatives to groups in Northern Canada and Siberia, as well as the Navajo and Apache in the Southwest. Recent research has connected them to the Yeniseian (Ket) peoples of Central Siberia. Their name for themselves - "Tunne" - is cognate with the Navajo "Dine." At some point, they split off from the southward migration of the Athapaskans, and settled into these remote pockets of land. They were found in small valleys from the Lower Columbia through the Umpqua and Rogue valleys in Southern Oregon. Their languages remained distinctive, but otherwise they shared many cultural similarities with their neighbors. How and when they found their way here is something of a mystery. Their descendants still live in Oregon today.
Oregon Athapaskan is divided into 5 main languages and about 14 dialects.
the Kwalhioqua dialect spoken in the Willapa Hills and the Boistfort Valley (north shore of the Lower Columbia River)
the Clatskanie dialect on the Upper Nehalem and Clatskanie Rivers (south shore of the Lower Columbia River)
the Kwatami dialect spoken along the Sixes River & at Floras Lake (southern Oregon coast)
several Tututni dialects spoken along the Lower Rogue & Pistol Rivers (southern Oregon coast)
the Chastacosta dialect spoken along the Rogue River Gorge (southwestern Oregon interior)
the Dakubetede dialect spoken in the Applegate Valley (southwestern Oregon interior)
the Gusladada dialect (?) spoken in the Upper Illinois Valley (southwestern Oregon interior)
several Tolowa dialects spoken along the Smith River & around Lake Earl (extreme northwestern California)
Barry, J. Nielson. "The Indians of Oregon: Geographic Distribution of Linguistic Families." Oregon Historical Quarterly 28 (1927): 49-61. Print.
Bennett, Ruth, ed. Indian Language Materials: Tolowa. Arcata: Humboldt State U, 1972. Print.
Bennett, Ruth, ed. Integration of Bilingual Emphasis Program Into the University Curriculum: Hupa, Yurok, Karuk and Tolowa Emphasis. Arcata: Humboldt State U, 1987. 37p. Print.
Boas, Franz, and Pliny E. Goddard. "Vocabulary of an Athapaskan Dialect of the State of Washington." International Journal of American Linguistics 3 (1924): 39-45. Print.
Bommelyn, Loren. Now You're Speaking Tolowa. Arcata: Humboldt State U, 1995. 177p. Print.
Bommelyn, Loren. "The Prolegomena to the Tolowa Athabaskan Grammar." Diss. U of Oregon, 1997. 65p. Print.
Bommelyn, Loren, ed. The Tolowa Language. Arcata: Humboldt State U, 1984. 354p. Print.
Bommelyn, Loren, and Berneice Humphrey. Xus We-Yo: Tolowa (Tututni) Language Dictionary. 2nd ed. Crescent City: Tolowa Language Committee, 1989. 488p. Print.
Bright, Jane O. "The Phonology of Smith River Athapaskan (Tolowa)." International Journal of American Linguistics 30 (1964): 101-107. Print.
Bright, Jane O., and William Bright. "Semantic Structures in Northwestern California." American Anthropologist 67 (1965): 249-258. Print.
Collins, James. "Nasalization, Lengthening, and Phonological Rhyme in Tolowa." International Journal of American Linguistics 55 (1989): 326-340. Print.
Collins, James. "Pronouns, Markedness, and Stem Change in Tolowa." International Journal of American Linguistics 51 (1985): 368-372. Print.
Gatschet, Albert S. "Volk und Sprache der Maklaks im Sudwestlichen Oregon." Globus Illustrirte Zeitschrift 35 (1879): 161-171, 187-189. Print.
Gifford, Edward W. "Tolowa." Californian Kinship Terminologies. Berkeley: University of California, 1922. 15-17. Print.
Givon, T., and Loren Bommelyn. "The Evolution of De-Transitive Voice in Tolowa Athabaskan." Studies in Language 24.1 (2000): 41-76. Print.
Golla, Victor K. "Tututni (Oregon Athapascan)." International Journal of American Linguistics 42 (1976): 217-227. Print.
Grigsby, Tom. "Some Observations About the Languages at Siletz." The First Oregonians: An Illustrated Collection of Essays on Traditional Lifeways, Federal-Indian Relations, and the State's Native Peoples Today. Ed. Carolyn M. Buan and Richard Lewis. Portland: Oregon Council for the Humanities, 1991. 107. Print.
Hall, Roberta L. "Language and Cultural Affiliations of Natives Residing Near the Mouth of the Coquille River Before 1851." Journal of Anthropological Research 48 (1992): 165-184. Print.
Hoijer, Harry. "Athapaskan Languages of the Pacific Coast." Culture in History: Essays in Honor of Paul Radin. Ed. Stanley Diamond. New York: Columbia UP, 1960. 960-976. Print.
Hoijer, Harry. "The Chronology of the Athapaskan Languages." International Journal of American Linguistics 22 (1956): 219-232. Print.
Hoijer, Harry. "Galice Athapaskan: A Grammatical Sketch." International Journal of American Linguistics 32 (1966): 320-327. Print.
Hoijer, Harry. "Galice Noun and Verb Stems." Linguistics 104 (1973): 49-73. Print.
Hymes, Dell H. "A Note on Athapaskan Glottochronology." International Journal of American Linguistics 23 (1957): 291-297. Print.
Hymes, Virginia D. "Athapaskan Numeral Systems." Diss. Indiana U, 1954. 55p. Print.
Hymes, Virginia D. "Athapaskan Numeral Systems." International Journal of American Linguistics 21 (1955): 26-45. Print.
Jacobs, Melville. "Historic Perspectives in Indian Languages of Oregon and Washington." Pacific Northwest Quarterly 28 (1937): 55-74. Print.
Krauss, Michael E. "Na-Dene and Eskimo-Aleut." The Languages of Native America: Historical and Comparative Assessment. Ed. Lyle Campbell and Marianne Mithun. Austin: U of Texas Press, 1979. 803-901. Print.
Kroeber, Alfred L. "Goddard's Californian Athabascan Texts." International Journal of American Linguistics 33 (1967): 269-275. Print.
Landar, Herbert J. "Three Rogue River Athapaskan Vocabularies." International Journal of American Linguistics 43 (1977): 289-301. Print.
Morice, Adrien G. "Chasta Costa and the Dene Languages of the North." American Anthropologist 17 (1915): 559-572. Print.
The Pacific Northwest Tribes Indian Language Collection. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 1976. 21 microfilm reels.
Parsons, Tom. "Joh Xush Nushling: 'Again a Person I've Become' in the Athabascan Tolowa Language." The Pacific Century: Opportunities and Challenges for Continuing Education, NUCEA Region 6 Conference Proceedings. Los Angeles: National University Continuing Education Association, 1986. Print.
Pierce, Joe E., and James M. Ryherd. "The Status of Athapaskan Research in Oregon." International Journal of American Linguistics 30 (1964): 137-143. Print.
Powell, J. W. "Indian Linguistic Families North of Mexico: Athapascan Family, Pacific Group." Seventh Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, 1885-1886. Washington: GPO, 1891. 53. Print.
Sapir, Edward. Notes on Chasta Costa Phonology and Morphology. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania Museum, 1914. 69p. Print.
Schaeffer, Claude. "Indian Tribes and Languages of the Old Oregon Country: A New Map." Oregon Historical Quarterly 60 (1959): 129-133. Print.
Seaburg, William R. "A Wailaki (Athapaskan) Text with Comparative Notes." International Journal of American Linguistics 43 (1977): 327-332. Print.
Suttles, Wayne P., and Cameron Suttles. Native Languages of the Northwest Coast. Map. Portland: Western Imprints, 1985. Print.
Tuttle, Siri G. "Stress and Vocal Length in Tolowa." Diss. U of Washington, 1990. 40p. Print.
Whistler, Kenneth W. "Linguistic Prehistory in the Northwest California Culture Area." A Study of Cultural Resources in Redwood National Park. Ed. Polly M. Bickel. Denver: US National Park Service, 1979. 11-26. Print.
Manuscripts and Archives
National Anthropological Archives
Pilling, James C. Catalogue of Linguistic Manuscripts in the Library of the Bureau of Ethnology. Washington: U. S. Bureau of American Ethnology, 1881. 24p.
Abbott, George H. "Letter to George Gibbs, August 31 1858; with a Map and Census of the Coquille and Adjoining Tribes, and a Coquille Vocabulary." 1858. 15p. Ms. 125.
Anderson, Alexander C. "Concordance of the Athapascan Languages: Chipeweyan, Carrier, Clatskanie, Kwalhioqua, Upper Umpqua, Tututni, Applegate, Hupa, Tolowa." 1858. 12p. Ms. 123. This comparative vocabulary contains 108 words in each of the languages, and an 8 page appendix.
---. "Klatskanai Vocabulary." 1854. 6p. Ms. 107. Include about 180 words recorded in 1854 or 1855 from Ia-coos, a Clatskanie living at Cathlamet.
---. "Vocabulary of the Willopah (Dialect of Tahcully, Athapasca): From an Indian at S. S. Fords, February, 1856." 1856. 10p. Ms. 110.
Crook, George. "Tah-Leu-Wah (Tolowa) Vocabulary." 1855. 6p. Ms. 86.
Crook, George, and Lorenzo Hubbard. "Clerk's Copy of Crook's Tolowa Vocabulary, and Lorenzo Hubbard's Tututni Vocabulary of 61 Terms from the California Farmer, June 8, 1860." 8p. Ms. 85.
Dorsey, James O. "Adjective Correlatives (or Correlative Adjective Pronouns) in the Tutu Dialect of Oregon, and Verb Conjugations." 1884. 2 charts. Ms. 4800/382.
---. "Chasta Costa Vocabulary, from the Athapascans Formerly Living on the Rogue River, Oregon." 1884. 26p. Ms. 4800/374.
---. "Chetco Vocabulary and Grammatical Notes, Formerly Spoken by the Athapascans Living on the Chetco River, Oregon." 1884. 87p. Ms. 4800/376.
---. "Comparative Notes on Athapascan Dialects of Oregon." 1884. 7p. Ms. 4800/367.
---. "Dakubetede Vocabulary Collected from the Athapascans Formerly Living on Applegate Creek, Oregon." 1886. 19p. Ms. 4800/372.
---. "Kwatami Vocabulary and Grammatical Notes, Spoken by the Athapascans Formerly Living on Sixes Creek, Oregon." 1884. 49p. Ms. 4800/387.
---. "Lists of Athapascan Tribal Divisions from Henshaw, Bancroft, Schoolcraft and Dall." 1884. 5p., 5 cards. Ms. 4800/370.
---. "Mikwunu Tunne Vocabulary and Grammatical Notes, Spoken by the Tututni Athapascans Formerly Living on the Lower Rogue River, Oregon." 1884. 44p. Ms. 4800/377.
---. "Modes of Predication in the Athapaskan Dialects of Oregon." 1884. 2p. Ms. 4800/368.
---. "Naltunnetunne Vocabulary and Grammatical Notes, as Spoken by the Athapascans Formerly Living on Naltunne River, Oregon." 1884. 177p. Ms. 4800/388.
---. "Notes on the Verb 'To Have' or 'Possess': Oregon Athapascan, Lower Umpqua." 1884. 3p. Ms. 4800/415.
---. "Notes on Verbs in Tututni." 1884. 7p. Ms. 4800/369.
---. "Notes Relating to Dorsey's Gentile System of the Siletz Tribes." 1884. 50p. Ms. 4800/362. The manuscript includes some of the text of the published article, lists of villages and gentes at Siletz Agency, and a number of sketch maps and diagrams, including a sketch of Takelma localities (1 page on cardboard); and maps of Athapascan villages in Oregon and California, drawn "according to a Nal-tunne-tunne, Alex Ross, and E'-ne-a'-ti, a Tututunne".
---. "Partial Paradigms of over 167 Tututni Verbs." 1884. 6 charts. Ms. 4800/383.
---. "Qaunwate Vocabulary from the Athapascans Formerly Living on Smith River, California." 1884. 15p. Ms. 4800/389.
---. "Remarks on the Applegate Creek Indians (Dakubetede)." 1886. 1p. Ms. 4800/371.
---. "Tabulation of the Number of Entries in the Vocabularies Recorded by Dorsey at Siletz Reservation, Oregon, 1884." 1884. 5p. Ms. 4800/361.
---. "Tceme Tunne (Joshua) Story of Creation." 1884. 3p. Ms. 4800/385.
---. "Tceme Tunne (Joshua) Vocabulary and Grammatical Notes." 1884. 50p. Ms. 4800/379.
---. "Tribes Resident on the Reservation at Toledo, Oregon." 1884. 3p. Ms. 261.
---. "Tutu Tunne or Tutu and Joshua Vocabulary, as Spoken in Several Athapascan Villages, with Grammatical and Miscellaneous Notes." 1884. 375p., 6 charts. Ms. 4800/378.
---. "Tutu Vocabulary and Grammatical Notes." 1884. 98p., 3 charts. Ms. 4800/380.
---. "Tututni Vocabulary: Original Notes and Vocabulary on Slips." 1884. 200p. Ms. 4800/381.
---. "Upper Coquille (Miciqwutme Tunne) Vocabulary and Grammatical Notes." 1884. 112p. Ms. 4800/375.
Coquille Athapaskan materials derived from Coquille Thompson and Solomon in late 1884.
---. "A Visit to the Siletz Agency." 1884. 17p. Ms. 4800/364.
---. "Yukitche Vocabulary and Grammatical Notes, Formerly Spoken by the Athapascans Living on Euchre Creek, Oregon." 1884. 31p. Ms. 4800/386.
Everette, Willis E. "Names of the Tene Indian Tribes of Oregon." 1882. 1p. Ms. 225.
---. "Vocabulary of the Tu-Tu-Tene and Nine Confederated Tribes, Siletz River, Western Oregon." 1882. 170p. Ms. 78.
Frachtenberg, Leo J. "Chemetunne (Joshua) Traditions." 1900. 79p. Ms. 1724.
---. "Kwalhioqua (Willapa) Vocabulary and a Short Text." 17p. Ms. 4797. This vocabulary was probably collected from Mary Hudson in 1910, and includes some further word lists of unknown provenance.
Gatschet, Albert S. "Names of Tribes of Western Oregon in Tututni Language." 1880. 1p. Ms. 4047. Included as part of Gatschet's correspondence, this is a letter from Willis E. Everette giving tribal names in Tututni.
---. "Umpqua (Athapascan) Vocabulary: Recorded at Grand Ronde Indian Reservation, Oregon." 1877. 22p. Ms. 76.
Gibbs, George. "Comparative Vocabulary of Hupa, Henaggi, Tututni." 1851-1852. 6p. Ms. 886.
---. "Nabiltse Vocabulary." 1851-1852. 2p. Ms. 131. Possibly an unknown Rogue River Athapaskan language, collected by Gibbs at Weitchpec in Northern California.
---. "Observations on the Coast Tribes of Oregon." 1856. 7p. Ms. 196. Collection consists of notes by Gibbs of material from George Crook, W. B. Hazen, and Dr. J. I. Milhau. There are also two incomplete draft manuscripts, each 9 pages. Tribes described include the Clatsop, Tillamook, Alsea, Kuitsh, Coos, Tututni, and Tolowa.
---. "Vocabulary of the Willopah (Kwalhioqua) Dialect." 6p.
Hamilton, Alexander S. "Haynarger (Tolowa) Vocabulary of 180 Words from Smith River, California." 1856. 7p. Ms. 87.
Harrington, John P. The Papers of John P. Harrington: Alaska/Northwest Coast. Millwood: Kraus International, 1981. This finding guide provides access to the microfilmed edition of the papers of John Peabody Harrington in the National Anthropological Archives. Three of the microfilm reels cover Western Oregon Athapaskan. These are: #019: Kwalhioqua-Tlatskanai; #025-027: SW Oregon Athapaskan; #028: Galice-Applegate.
Hazen, William B. "Applegate Creek and Takelma Vocabularies." 1857. 6p. Ms. 154 and 1655. Vocabularies are about 210 words.
---. "Comparative Vocabularies of the Upper Rogue River Languages (Applegate, Takelma, and Shasta)." 1857. 8p. Ms. 154 and 1655. Vocabularies are about 180 words.
Kautz, August V. "English-Toutouten Vocabulary of about 70 Words, with Notes on Local Tribal Divisions by George Gibbs." 1855. 10p. Ms. 199-200.
---. "Letter from A. V. Kautz, Port Orford, June 19 1855, Including Census of 12 Tututni Bands Taken May-June 1854." 1855. 4p. Ms. 201.
---. "Tututni Vocabulary." 1855. 22p. Ms. 198-200.
Krauss, Michael E. "Kwalhioqua and Clatskanie (Athapaskan) Linguistic Material." 1963-1988. Ts. U of Alaska, Fairbanks. Print.
Marr, John P. Galice Creek Athabaskan Sound Recordings. Discs, audiotapes. John Peabody Harrington Papers, National Anthropological Archives. 1097-1116. The original recordings were on 20 aluminum discs. The informant was Hoxie Simmons.
---. Tolowa-Tututni Sound Recordings. Discs, audiotapes. John Peabody Harrington Papers, National Anthropological Archives. 1244-1257. The original recordings were on 14 aluminum discs. The informant was Lucy Smith.
---. Upper Coquille Athabaskan Sound Recordings. Discs, audiotapes. John Peabody Harrington Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Washington. 970-1003. Tape recordings of this set were presented to the Coquille Indian Tribe by the President of the University of Oregon in May 1998. The original recordings were on 34 aluminum discs. The informant was Coquille Thompson.
Milhau, John J. "Vocabulary of Umpqua Valley (Proper)." 1856. 21p. Ms. 193a-b. This vocabulary records about 360 words of Umpqua Athapaskan, which Milhau notes "is very similar to that spoken on the Headwaters of the Coquille."
Powers, Stephen. "Tolowa Vocabulary." 1p. Ms. 82. A vocabulary of 16 words.
Rigsby, Bruce J. "Report of a Trip to Siletz, Oregon, to See Archie Johnson, a Speaker of Coquille Athabaskan." 1963. 4p. Ms. 4667.
Roehrig, F. L. O. "Comparative Vocabulary of Upper Umpqua and Willopah." 9p. Ms. 155. Vocabularies of Umpqua and Kwalhioqua Athapaskan, based on material by Gibbs and Milhau.
Waterman, Thomas T. "The Athapascan Indians of Southwestern Oregon and Northwestern California." 1921. 156p. Ms. 3183. This collection covers the Tolowa and Chetco-Tututni, and includes a wide variety of photographs and postcards of people and places along the southern Oregon coast and adjacent Tolowa territory in northwest California. There are also sketch maps showing Indian geographic names in the Chetco, Rogue River, and Tolowa tribal areas. Additional maps show the "rancherias" of the Tututunne and the Pistol River Chetleschantunne.
University of California, Berkeley
Kroeber, Alfred L. Ethnological Manuscripts in the Robert H. Lowie Museum of Anthropology. Berkeley: California Indian Library Collections Project, 1989. 22p.
Valory, Dale. Guide to Ethnological Documents (1-203) of the Dept. and Museum of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, Now in the University Archives. Berkeley: UC Berkeley Anthropology Dept., 1971. 73p.
Driver, Harold E. "California Athapaskan and Other Vocabularies for Culture Element Distribution Studies." 1935. 7p. Ms. Valory 5.1. Bancroft Library. Manuscript in the Bancroft Library and the California Indian Library Collection, Del Norte County Library, Crescent City. It includes comparisons of 60 Tolowa words with the Chilula, Nongatl, Mattole and Sinkyone language equivalents. The brief vocabularies were designed to check tribal identifications of informants.
Du Bois, Cora A. "Tututni (Rogue River Athapaskan) Field Notes." 1934. 130p. Ms. Valory 6. Bancroft Library. Manuscript in the Bancroft Library and the California Indian Library Collection, Del Norte County Library, Crescent City. This manuscript contains general unsorted ethnographic, ethnogeographic, and linguistic data. Myth texts are not included.
Goddard, Pliny E. "Tolowa Tales and Texts, with Free and Interlinear Translations: with a Partial Index by A. L. Kroeber and a Table of Contents by Dale Valory." 1902-1911. 311p. Ms. Valory 12.7 Hearst Museum of Anthropology. Manuscript set in the Hearst Museum and in the California Indian Library Collection, Del Norte County Library, Crescent City. This set of four typescript notebooks includes one volume of original free translations of myths (112p.); a second volume of untitled texts mostly without interlinear translations (70p.); a third volume of carbon-copy texts, complete with interlinear translations (71p.); and a fourth volume of original texts without interlinear translations (58p.)
Merriam, C. Hart. "Hah'-wung-kwut and 'Huss Natural History Word Lists, Collected at Smith River Mouth and Crescent City, California." 1910-1938. Ms. Anthropology Dept., U of California, Berkeley.
---. "Hah'-wung-kwut (Huss or Tolowa) Vocabulary from Sam Lopez, Crescent City." 1910-1938. Ms. Anthropology Dept., U of California, Berkeley.
---. "Huss (Hah'-wun-kwut) Bands and Villages." 1910-1938. 31p. Ms. Anthropology Dept., U of California, Berkeley. Lists village sites from Winchuk River on the California-Oregon border southwards to Wilson Creek, eight miles north of the Klamath River.
---. "To-lo-wah or Huss Bands and Villages." 1910-1938. 3p. Ms. Anthropology Dept., U of California, Berkeley.
Waterman, Thomas T. "Notes on Tolowa Culture and Geography." 1921-22. 148p. Ms. Valory 101. Bancroft Library. Manuscript in the Bancroft Library, and the California Indian Library Collection, Del Norte County Library, Crescent City. The manuscript is in two parts: the first includes 69 pages of material on Tolowa geography and material culture, including canoe types; a myth "Disliked because of squaw-fish"; sketches of basket design; names for food and clothing; and clothing design. The second section covers place names along the coast, from Smith River north along the coast to Coos Bay, and also along the Rogue River. A typed section covers place names along the Smith River in Tolowa territory.
University of Washington, Seattle
Seaburg, William R. Guide to Pacific Northwest Native American Materials in the Melville Jacobs Collection and in Other Archival Collections in the University of Washington Libraries. Seattle: U of Washington Libraries, 1982. 113p.
Hoijer, Harry. "Galice Athapaskan Stems." 1956. 67p.
Jacobs, Elizabeth D. "Chetco Linguistic Notebooks from Billy Metcalf." 1935. 186p. Ms. 72 and 116.
---. "Galice Athapaskan Linguistic Notebooks from Hoxie Simmons." 1935. 9p. Ms. 117 and 118.
---. "Tututni Athapaskan Linguistic and Ethnographic Notebooks from Ida Baker." 1934-35. 389p. Ms. 108, 109, 110, and 132.
---. "Tututni Athapaskan Linguistic Slip Files from Ida Baker." 1935. 1200 slips.
---. "Upper Coquille Athapaskan Folklore from Coquille Thompson." 1935. 93p.
---. "Upper Coquille Athapaskan Linguistic and Ethnographic Notebooks from Coquille Thompson." 1935. 870p. Ms. 71, 104, 116, and 119-121.
---. "Upper Coquille Lexical Items, Phrases and Paradigms from Coquille Thompson." 1935. 26p.
---. "Upper Umpqua Linguistic and Ethnographic Notebook from Mrs. Jerden." 1935. 26p. Ms. 131.
Jacobs, Melville. "Chasta Costa Linguistic Data from Jake and Bensel Orten." 1928. 27p. Ms. notebook 33.
---. "Clatskanie Linguistic Slip Files from Clara Pearson." 1934. 5 slips.
---. Galice Creek Athabaskan Music and Texts. Discs, audiotapes. 14726-14729, 14740-14751. The original recordings were on 16 acetate discs. The informant was Hoxie Simmons.
---. "Galice Creek Linguistic Field Notebooks from Hoxie Simmons." 1935-1939. 520p. Ms. Ms. 117, 118, and 126-130.
---. "Galice Creek Linguistic Slip Files from Hoxie Simmons." 1935-1939. 3000 slips.
---. "Key to Galice Creek Text Dictations." 1935. 6p.
---. "Orthographic Changes in the Writing of Galice." 1955. 2p.
---. "Phonetic Key to Galice-Applegate." 1939. 1p.
---. "Transcriptions, Translations and Annotations of Galice Sound Recordings." 1939. 6p.
---. Upper Coquille Athabaskan Music and Texts. Discs, audiotapes. 14705-14725. The original recordings were on 21 acetate discs. The informant was Coquille Thompson.
The Library of the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia
Freeman, John F. A Guide to Manuscripts Relating to the American Indian in the Library of the American Philosophical Society. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Soc., 1966. 491p. Print.
Freeman, John F. et al. American Indian Manuscripts in the American Philosophical Society Library. Web.
Kendall, Daythal L. A Supplement to A Guide to Manuscripts Relating to the American Indian in the Library of the American Philosophical Society. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Soc., 1982. 168p. Print.
Boas, Franz. "Willapa Word Lists." 1910-1924. 13p. Ms. 3847.
"Galice Record." 16p. Ms. 4259. Includes nouns and verbs with various person markers.
Goddard, Pliny E. "Tolowa Field Notes." 1902-1903. 18 notebooks. Ms. 3764. The collection consists of lexical items, paradigms, songs, museum specimens, texts, historical narratives, ethnological data, and names for material-culture objects. The information was collected at Smith River and Burnt Rock, California.
Teit, James A. "Notes to Willapa, an Athabascan Language." 1910. 4p. Ms. 3848.. Comparative notes based on a missing Kwalhioqua word list.
The University of Oregon Library, Eugene
Southwest Oregon Research Project
Lewis, David G. Southwest Oregon Research Project: Inventory to the Archival Collection, Coll. 268. Eugene: Knight Library, University of Oregon, 2001. 113p.
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